Dipan Kumar Rout

Living life between backspaces.

Meaning of Life: Modern Existence & Philosophy

In the blank silence of night at 2:45 am, I ask myself what’s the meaning of life. I have been reading a lot of modern existential philosophy; so thought of putting a structured written piece on it.

The meaning of life is a profound and subjective question that has been explored by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and thinkers throughout history. Here are several perspectives on what gives life its meaning:

  1. Personal Fulfillment and Happiness: Many believe that finding joy and satisfaction in personal achievements, relationships, and experiences is what gives life meaning. This perspective emphasizes living a fulfilling life by pursuing passions, hobbies, and goals that bring happiness.
  2. Relationships and Connections: The bonds we form with family, friends, and loved ones often give life meaning. Building and nurturing meaningful relationships can provide a sense of belonging and purpose.
  3. Contributing to Society: For some, making a positive impact on the world and helping others is a source of meaning. This can be through career choices, volunteer work, or acts of kindness.
  4. Spirituality and Religion: Many people find meaning through their faith and spiritual beliefs. Religion and spirituality can provide a sense of purpose, connection to a higher power, and a framework for understanding life’s mysteries.
  5. Personal Growth and Self-Improvement: The pursuit of knowledge, self-awareness, and personal development can give life meaning. Striving to become the best version of oneself and continually learning can be deeply fulfilling.
  6. Existential and Philosophical Perspectives: Existentialists, like Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, argue that life inherently has no meaning and that individuals must create their own meaning through choices and actions. This view emphasizes personal responsibility and freedom.
  7. Art and Creativity: Engaging in creative endeavors and appreciating art can provide a sense of meaning. Expressing oneself through music, writing, painting, or other forms of art can be a way to explore and communicate one’s inner world.

Ultimately, the meaning of life is a deeply personal and individual journey. Each person may find meaning in different places, and what is meaningful can change over time.

Nihilism vs. Existentialism vs. Absurdism: Understanding Philosophical Perspectives on Meaning and Existence

The search for meaning and understanding of existence has led to the development of various philosophical schools of thought. Among these, nihilism, existentialism, and absurdism stand out for their profound and often unsettling perspectives. While they share some common ground, they diverge significantly in their views on meaning, purpose, and the nature of existence. This article delves into these three philosophical frameworks, exploring their origins, key ideas, and differences.

Nihilism: The Rejection of Meaning

Origins and Background: Nihilism, derived from the Latin word “nihil” meaning “nothing,” is the philosophical doctrine that suggests life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value. This perspective gained prominence in the 19th century, particularly through the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, though the concept can be traced back to earlier thinkers.

Key Ideas:

  • Rejection of Objective Truths: Nihilism posits that there are no absolute truths or values. Everything is relative, and any claims to objective reality or moral truths are viewed with skepticism.
  • Moral Nihilism: This branch of nihilism argues that moral values are human constructs without any inherent truth. There is no right or wrong beyond subjective human judgments.
  • Existential Nihilism: It suggests that life has no inherent meaning or purpose. Human existence, and by extension the universe, is seen as random and indifferent.
  • Epistemological Nihilism: This form questions the possibility of knowledge, asserting that nothing can be known for certain.

Influence and Critique: Nihilism has been influential in various cultural and intellectual movements. However, it is often criticized for leading to pessimism and despair. Critics argue that a nihilistic worldview can undermine motivation and ethical behavior, as it denies any inherent value in actions or achievements.

Existentialism: Creating Meaning Through Existence

Origins and Background: Existentialism emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with key figures like Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Albert Camus. This philosophical movement emphasizes individual freedom, choice, and responsibility in creating meaning in an otherwise indifferent or even absurd universe.

Key Ideas:

  • Existence Precedes Essence: This fundamental existentialist principle, famously articulated by Sartre, asserts that individuals are not born with a predefined essence or purpose. Instead, they must define their own essence through their actions and choices.
  • Freedom and Responsibility: Existentialism places a heavy emphasis on personal freedom and the responsibility that comes with it. Individuals are free to make their own choices, but they must also bear the consequences of those choices.
  • Authenticity: To live authentically means to act in accordance with one’s true self, rather than conforming to societal expectations or external pressures. It involves embracing one’s freedom and the inherent uncertainty of life.
  • Anxiety and Angst: Existentialists recognize that the freedom to define one’s own existence can lead to feelings of anxiety and existential angst. This is a natural response to the realization of one’s ultimate responsibility and the absence of predetermined meaning.

Influence and Critique: Existentialism has profoundly impacted literature, psychology, theology, and the arts. Critics, however, argue that its focus on individualism can lead to solipsism and a neglect of social and communal aspects of human life. Additionally, the emphasis on personal responsibility can be overwhelming and lead to feelings of isolation.

Absurdism: Embracing the Absurd

Origins and Background: Absurdism, closely associated with existentialism, is most notably articulated by Albert Camus in works such as “The Myth of Sisyphus.” Absurdism explores the conflict between humans’ desire to find inherent meaning in life and the indifferent, chaotic universe that offers none.

Key Ideas:

  • The Absurd: At the core of absurdism is the concept of the absurd, which arises from the clash between humans’ search for meaning and the silent, indifferent universe. This conflict is seen as inevitable and irreconcilable.
  • Three Responses to the Absurd: According to Camus, individuals can respond to the absurd in three ways:
    • Suicide: Camus rejects this as a viable option, viewing it as a surrender to the absurd.
    • Leap of Faith: This involves embracing religious or metaphysical beliefs to find meaning. Camus also rejects this, seeing it as an escape from facing the absurd.
    • Acceptance and Rebellion: The preferred response, according to Camus, is to accept the absurdity of life and live in defiance of it. This means finding joy and meaning in the struggle itself, without relying on external validation or ultimate purpose.
  • The Myth of Sisyphus: Camus uses the Greek myth of Sisyphus, condemned to eternally roll a boulder up a hill only for it to roll back down, as a metaphor for the human condition. He argues that one must imagine Sisyphus happy, embracing the struggle and finding meaning in the act of rebellion against the absurd.

Influence and Critique: Absurdism has influenced existentialist thought, literature, and the arts. Critics of absurdism argue that it can be overly pessimistic and nihilistic, offering little solace or practical guidance for finding meaning in everyday life.

Comparative Analysis: Nihilism vs. Existentialism vs. Absurdism

While nihilism, existentialism, and absurdism share some thematic similarities, particularly their focus on the absence of inherent meaning, they diverge significantly in their responses to this realization:

  • Nihilism outright rejects the possibility of meaning, leading to a view of life as ultimately pointless. It is often seen as the most pessimistic of the three.
  • Existentialism acknowledges the absence of inherent meaning but argues that individuals can create their own meaning through their choices and actions. It emphasizes personal freedom and responsibility.
  • Absurdism accepts the inherent meaninglessness of life but suggests that individuals can find joy and meaning in the struggle against the absurd. It advocates for a defiant acceptance of life’s absurdity.


The philosophical exploration of meaning through nihilism, existentialism, and absurdism offers profound insights into the human condition. Each perspective challenges individuals to confront the reality of an indifferent universe in different ways: by rejecting meaning, by creating personal meaning, or by embracing the absurd. Understanding these philosophies provides a rich framework for contemplating the nature of existence and our place within it.

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